Nanoscale surface modification by anodic oxidation increased bone ingrowth and reduced fibrous tissue in the porous coating of titanium–alloy femoral hip arthroplasty implants (Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials)

Nanoscale surface modification by anodic oxidation increased bone ingrowth and reduced fibrous tissue in the porous coating of titanium–alloy femoral hip arthroplasty implants
Deborah J. Hall, Robert M. Urban, Robin Pourzal, Thomas M. Turner, Anastasia K. Skipor and Joshua J. Jacobs
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials – October 2015

Abstract:
Hip arthroplasty femoral stems coated with Ti6Al4V beads were treated by anodic oxidation in H3PO4 for enhanced bioactivity and were studied in a 6-month canine model to determine the effects of the treated surface on the ingrowth of bone and soft tissues. The area fractions of bone, marrow, and fibrous tissue in the porous coating of seven treated and seven untreated control implants were determined using histomorphological techniques. The area fraction of bone within the porous coating was greater for anodic oxide treated (23.6 ± 8.3%) compared to control implants (l2.7 ± 4.7%) (p = 0.013), and there was less fibrous tissue in the treated implants (18.0 ± 9.5%) compared to the controls (33.1 ± 7.9%) (p = 0.006). XPS, XRD, TEM, and SEM analyses of the treated implants revealed a 400 nm-thick titanium oxide layer of low crystallinity with an undulating surface, populated with more than 25 nm-size pores per square micrometer. There was no detectable increase in serum titanium or in generation of particulates locally compared to the control implants. Micro and nanoscale surface modification by anodic oxidation increased bone ingrowth and reduced fibrous tissue, which may extend the longevity of fixation, limiting pathways for particle migration, and impeding the progression of osteolysis and aseptic loosening of arthroplasty components. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2015.

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