X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), also known as electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), is a surface analysis technique that uses photoelectrons generated by an x-ray beam to analyze the composition and chemistry of the outermost ~5 nm of the surfaces of solid samples.
Using XPS, we can determine the quantitative elemental composition of surfaces, molecular species present on surfaces, and chemical states of surface atoms.
McCrone Associates uses a Physical Electronics Quantum 2000 Scanning ESCA Microprobe, a dedicated XPS system with many advanced features, including:
Essentials of Polarized Light Microscopy and Ancillary Techniques by John Gustav Delly has been published.
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